Headaches, fevers, and those general, ever-changing, daily aches and pains we all experience are not new to the modern world. They are, in fact, one of the things we have in common with the people who lived thousands of years ago. Today we generally reach for the nearest pill to dull painful sensations. But how did archaic people of the Lower Pecos deal with them 4,000-6,000 years ago? For the next few posts, I will write about medicinal herbs that were likely available in the ancient Lower Pecos and how they were possibly used. Think of it as the archaic Lower Pecos Medicine Chest.
One of the most frequently used natural remedies for general pain found in the Lower Pecos was likely the common white willow. The bark, and to some extent leaves, contains salicylic acid, the same active ingredient in aspirin, truly one of the wonder drugs of the world. The bark from a twig (not the main trunk, which is rough and hard) could be scraped and boiled to produce a tea for pain relief.
I remember seeing a large willow tree years ago, I believe in Rattlesnake Canyon. It was huge, and spread its branches like a giant umbrella over the canyon floor. Light was coming through the leaves, pale and beautiful. The twigs from that very tree could have been used by people long ago to make their headaches go away.
Another plant that could have been used was Mariola. A dry, carefully folded specimen of this plant was recovered from Fate Bell Shelter in Seminole Canyon State Park during past archeological excavations. Ancient people could have made a tea for general pain relief. Many people are allergic to the latex and sap of this genus, so please, do not try using this plant at home.
A little plant called dogweed, or fetid marigold, could also possibly have been used in ritual healing for fevers and general pain. The Navajo considered dogweed to be “red ant medicine,” and used it to treat illnesses attributed to swallowing red ants. Again, I’m warning you right here, please do not ingest red ants as part of any perceived “natural” diet or practice. No. Don’t do it.
For more severe injuries and illnesses in archaic times, the ministration of a shaman was most likely involved. This person was trained to sing the appropriate songs and perform the appropriate rituals necessary to comfort the patient and the family. Ethnographic accounts of shaman healing practices describe elaborate rituals that can last many hours or days. Anthropologists suspect that shamanistic practices were part of the ancient culture in the Lower Pecos, but we shall never know exactly what the ceremonies were or how they were performed.
The final plant I will mention today is the Buttonbush. T.N. Campbell (1951) recorded that the Choctaw used the bark and stems in an unspecified manner to treat fevers. Buttonbush contains very active, bitter glycosides that can cure or harm. Therefore, people should not use this plant except with the assistance of an experienced herbalist.
The ancient people had extensive knowledge of local plants and their medicinal uses. This knowledge must have been gained over a long period of time and handed down from one generation to another, a remarkable feat. Without writing, without “science”, without Google, they determined the ways in which various plants could be useful to human kind. Such knowledge was likely passed on to younger generations through explicit teaching.
Both the “discovery” and the “teaching” imply various things about cognition among ancient people of the Lower Pecos. Someday when I can wrap my head around it, perhaps I will write about that. To me it seems pretty clear that the extent of their knowledge, distributed and maintained through an oral tradition and remembered in the head, was impressive by any standards. But I digress.
Many of the plants I will discuss in future posts had more than one use, and some could be lethal if mishandled. So the knowledge had to be precise, and all aspects had to be transmitted and understood in order to preserve the health of the people. Botany was a serious thing, and accuracy–or “getting it right”– could be a life or death matter.
Thanks to Dr. Phil Dering for his articles on the website Texas Beyond History, where I cribbed most of this information. If you want to learn the real truth about these plants, go to Phil.
- http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/ethnobot/index.html (see Ethnobotany Gallery)
- Natural remedies- Can It Actually Boost Your Health More Than the Pharmacological Medicines? (myhomeremedyblog.wordpress.com)
- 02-25-13 The 55 Best Herbal Remedies (thehousegoddess.wordpress.com)